Scholars’ views on tourism consumption in the late Ming Dynasty — Guizhou channel people’s network-yyets.com

Scholars’ views on tourism consumption in the late Ming Dynasty — Guizhou channel people’s network of late Ming Dynasty, the prevalence of tourism, West Lake attracts tourists from all directions. As a "urban literati", Zhang Dai’s works on West Lake are as many as 76. For him, it is not only a lake, is a life time. In the "West Lake dream" as the representative of the West Lake Zhang Dai essay is "stay in West Lake after the world’s shadow". In Zhang Dai’s essay in West Lake, more than the description of West Lake tourism consumption bustling scene of tourists and tourism and recreational activities, exudes a rich flavor of life and full of charm. Industrialization, tourism consumption concept of tourism service form of luxury and West Lake tourism festivals are three important parts of the late Ming West Lake tourism Zhang Dai West Lake essay writing. The late Ming in the commodity economy developed, Hangzhou city people advocating abandoning Confucianism business, once you Jia style. Public groups begin to pay attention to business opportunities and create new business industries, especially around West Lake tourism. At this time, Hangzhou’s tourism industry centered on West Lake has risen again, and its practitioners are mostly citizens of Hangzhou. These people as a city group, mainly in West Lake, the boatman, actors and the vendors. Later people began to pay attention to West Lake tourism practitioners, a reappraisal of its value and pay attention to the right to life: "travel concept is not plain vulgar, although West Lake has to swim, is fine by the people for profit, more than a day. With our ban, solid to Yi, but fishing, boat, drama, city, Gu who lost its salty industry, they are not easy to reverse." The emergence of West Lake tourism group and the rise of tourism service, this new industry, originated from the needs of citizens. In the late Ming Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty, the restoration of West Lake and the restoration of scenic spots made West Lake re emerge a large number of tourists, tourists with multiple demands for entertainment. The aggregation of civic groups in West Lake has brought a large number of tourist groups to West Lake, which has brought a great deal of business opportunities and hope for survival. Such as the seven month, West Lake "vocal advocate, such as boiling such as shake". West Lake City Xiang, even in Hangzhou, is "put no wine, a left stuffed", which provides a large number of employment opportunities for tourism practitioners. The West Lake red boat provides more commercial and recreational services for visitors to West Lake. West Lake red boat, which is in essence the West Lake hawkers. The ship "wine table swim scull, interactive exchanges, the song blows voice is heard, since the spring and summer, summer and autumn, autumn and winter, day and breath, Sheng Yizai". The red boat also swim the lake’s stage, they are generated to meet the city people’s enjoyment of city tourism practitioners. With the development of tourism in West Lake, West Lake also appeared in a number of troupes, for visitors and city people enjoy opera. Zhang Dai recalls: "Peng Tianxi string play wonderful world", not a word coined. Once a play, the extension of his empty, the cost of dozens of gold, family business one hundred thousand, the edge of the hand and do. Spring in West Lake." In West Lake, it is only the drama of the Peng dynasty that is so popular that the importance of opera in the tourism industry in West Lake is obvious. After the middle period of Ming Dynasty "luxury to thrifty", is an important turning point of ancient China and concept of consumption mode. West Lake since the Southern Song Dynasty, already has "sell gold pot" argument. Lang Ying’s seven amendment manuscripts

晚明士人的旅游消费观–贵州频道–人民网   晚明旅游之风盛行,西湖吸引着来自四面八方的游客。作为一个“都市文人”,张岱有关西湖的作品多达76篇。对于他而言,西湖不仅仅是一泊湖水,更是一生岁月的留影。以《西湖梦寻》为代表的西湖小品文是张岱“留之后世以西湖之影”。纵观张岱的西湖小品文,多描写西湖旅游消费的繁华热闹场景和游客们的旅游娱乐活动,散发着浓郁的生活气息和盎然的情韵。旅游服务形态的产业化、旅游消费观念的奢侈化以及西湖旅游的节庆化是张岱西湖小品文对晚明西湖旅游书写的三个重要内容。   明中晚期商品经济发达,杭城市民崇尚弃儒经商、弃农就贾之风。市民群体开始关注商机,创造新的工商行业,特别是围绕西湖旅游大做文章。此时,杭州以西湖为中心的旅游产业再度兴起,其从业者大多为杭州市民。这些市民作为一个城市群体,主要有西湖轿夫、船夫、戏子和小商小贩。后世人们开始关注西湖旅游从业者,重评其价值并注重其生存权利:“游观虽非朴俗,然西湖业已为游地,则细民所藉为利,日不止千金。有司时禁之,固以易俗,但渔者、舟者、戏者、市者、酤者咸失其本业,反不便于此辈也。”   西湖旅游群体的出现和旅游服务这个新行业的兴起,源自于市民需求。中晚明时期西湖的重修和景点恢复,使西湖重新出现了大量游客,游客带着多重的游玩需求而来。市民群体在西湖的聚集,给西湖带来了大量的游人群体,从而给旅游从业者带来了大量的商机和生存的希望。如七月半时,西湖之上“人声鼓吹,如沸如撼”。到西湖香市时,就算是杭城内,也是“寓无留客,肆无留酿”,这为旅游从业者提供了大量的从业机会。   西湖红船为游览西湖的游客提供了更多的商业和娱乐服务。西湖红船,实质是指西湖上的小商小贩。这些船“酒棹游橹,往来交互,歌吹之声相闻,自春而夏,夏而秋,秋而冬,无日而息也,其盛矣哉”。这些红船还为游湖者献技献艺,她们都是为了满足城市人的享乐而产生的城市旅游从业者。随着西湖旅游的发展,西湖边也出现了大量戏班,供游人和城市人欣赏戏曲。张岱回忆说:“彭天锡串戏妙天下”,“未尝一字杜撰。曾以一出戏,延其人至空,费数十金者,家业十万,缘手而尽。三春多在西湖。”在西湖仅仅是彭天锡串戏就受到如此欢迎,可见戏曲在西湖旅游产业中的重要性。   明中叶以后“崇奢黜俭”的出现,是中国古代消费方式和观念的重要转折。西湖自南宋起,就已经有着“销金锅”的说法了。郎瑛《七修类稿》云:“吾杭西湖盛起于唐,至南宋建都,则游人仕女,画舫笙歌,日费万金,盛之至矣。”杭州文人还以西湖享乐作为城市象征和骄傲。西湖周围的豪华住宅,也是城市享乐消费方式之一。在西湖边置宅,成为杭城人追求享乐生活的标志。西湖边私人宅院林立,多以豪华精巧著称。文士更重视宅院,其理想的宅院还要能“堂前列鼎,堂后度曲,宾客满席”,文人士大夫广建园林和别墅,以至出现大量“城市山林”。如张岱回忆青莲山房:“山房多修竹古梅,倚莲花峰,跨曲涧,深岩峭壁,掩映林峦间。公有泉石之癖,日涉成趣。台榭之美,冠绝一时。外以石屑砌坛,柴根编户,富贵之中,又著草野。”他又借他人之言,赞此园林,城市里的建筑反学乡村村庄的风格,体现主人不凡的审美情趣:“造园华丽极,反欲学村庄。”   西湖游船的精美和讲究,更能体现西湖的享乐消费方式。城市文士和市民最爱泛舟西湖,“钱塘士女春可怜,年年争泛木兰船”。文人以此作为理想生活方式和交流方式,“千金卖一舟,舟中置鼓吹一部,妓妾数人,游闲数人,泛家浮宅,不知老之将至”,明代西湖游船装饰精美,船体趋向简朴小巧,看重门窗敞豁,便于倚眺湖景。这类船,其色彩和镀金形式,奇特而且多样化,航行设备很完善,不致遭受水淹。也有大型游船,如张岱描述包副使的涵所:“西湖之船有楼,实包副使涵所创为之。大小三号:头号置歌筵,储歌童,次载书画;再次?美人。”可谓穷奢极欲,繁极一时。 (责编:朱晓慧、陈康清)   这种奢靡之风的兴起,主要原因是城市经济繁荣、商品交换发达、城市化进程加快。“崇奢黜俭”思想的出现,促进了旅游消费领域奢侈之风兴盛。可以肯定的是,旅游奢侈之风实质是追求物质享受和精神享乐,是社会阶层尤其是市民阶层对物欲天然性的认同,促使文人趋向于对都市世俗生活的热衷,体现出市民社会的趣味。   西湖作为杭州城市的象征,作为文士、市民生活的重要场所,承载着独特的宗教民俗和节日民俗。西湖旅游的节庆化主要表现在西湖香市和龙舟竞渡上。   西湖香市是杭州信仰民俗与城市商业结合的产物。明代杭州香市开市时间很长,“起于花朝,尽于端午”,历时数月之久,其范围也不断扩大。张岱曾回忆:“市于三天竺,市于岳王坟,市于湖心亭,市于陆宣公祠,无不市。”香市的形成,缘于进香参佛的香客数量之众。每到花朝时节,来自苏嘉湖诸府甚至山东的香客云集西湖。运河和西湖到处是船,客栈家家住满。以进香为名、游玩为实的市民和文士不在少数,这让城市里的小商小贩发现了无限的商机。佛寺或西湖景点,逐渐出现了小货摊,直至后来百货聚集。香市百货聚集,自然吸引大量香客前来购物。西湖香市在西湖地域和杭城都市生活中产生,是明代城市化进程带来的宗教民俗新变。西湖香市由传统节庆民俗转化而来,带有传统节庆民俗的特点,被赋予城市元素和独特的宗教与商业内涵。   西湖端午竞渡在唐代是在钱塘江举行;到了宋时,杭州的官员则把竞渡引到西湖之中;到明代,西湖成为竞渡的主要场所。西湖竞渡,是杭城端午的典型习俗。因以西湖为竞渡场所显得有些狭小,所以西湖竞渡还具有表演和娱乐功能,吸引了大量文士和市民前来观看。张岱说,正值盛夏,观竞渡的杭城人倾城而出,“西湖竞渡,以看竞渡之人胜”。观竞渡者主要集中在断桥和苏堤之间,“自断桥至苏堤一望,连袂落鸳鸯之雨,招摇成燕子之风。周姬绮生,正抛蚤笺,欲控玉骢驰骤”。文人不仅关注竞渡民俗活动,还关注整个西湖的热闹场景,他们可以饮酒、观渡、观人。   张岱小品文对西湖旅游消费文化的书写,展示了晚明文士的旅游观是一种具有功利色彩的实用主义。这种观念使得传统文人的旅游活动的价值取向由道德取向转变为工具取向,推动了西湖旅游活动的商业化和市场化发展;对西湖旅游盛况的描写,显示了当时西湖周边新兴旅游阶层和旅游从业人员的崛起;对风尚奢靡的消费旅游观的书写,颠覆了以往的消费观念,说明当时商品经济的发展,引发了消费观念、从业方式、人生情趣等文化价值观的嬗变。这些变异在一定程度上表现出对中国传统社会价值观的一些破坏,标志着市民阶层自我主体意识的觉醒,为当时的旅游风尚添加了新的文化价值观和审美趣味。(王丽) (责编:朱晓慧、陈康清)相关的主题文章: