Oxygen Mediators Of Asbestos Induced Responses-mkdv-02

Lung-Mesothelioma-Asbestos Death due to asbestos exposure is a serious problem, and there has been a lot of research done on this hazardous material. One interesting study is called, "Role of Asbestos and Active Oxygen Species in Activation and Expression of Ornithine Decarboxylase in Hamster Tracheal Epithelial Cells by Joanne P. Marsh, and Brooke T. Mossman – Cancer Res January 1, 1991 51; 167. Here is an excerpt: Abstract – Induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme activity occurs after exposure of hamster tracheal epithelial (HTE) cells to asbestos and the soluble tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Since active oxygen species are implicated as mediators of asbestos-induced biological responses, studies here were designed to examine whether active oxygen species generated by asbestos or oxidants caused increased ODC activity. In confluent HTE cells, significant blockage of chrysotile or crocidolite asbestos-stimulated ODC activity occurred with simultaneous addition of catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, to medium. The addition of xanthine plus xanthine oxidase caused a dose-dependent increase in ODC activity, which was inhibited significantly after addition of catalase or mannitol, indicating that H2O2 was the principal oxidant produced in that reaction. Addition of phenazine methosulfate, a redox reagent used to generate superoxide, resulted in significant elevation of ODC, which was inhibited by addition of superoxide dismutase but not catalase. Hydrogen peroxide added to culture medium also caused a potent increase in ODC activity inhabitable by catalase. Hypochlorous acid caused increases in ODC activity, although the magnitude of this response was less than that observed with other oxidants. Therefore, although all active oxygen species examined triggered ODC, less reduced species ( and H2O2) were more proficient than OH or a halogenated oxidant. All oxidants, except HOCl, caused a significant increase in [3H] thymidine incorporation at 24 or 48 h after their addition to HTE cells. In .parative studies, exposure of HTE cells to either asbestos or xanthine plus xanthine oxide increased the level of ODC mRNAs proportionate to oxidant concentration and the extent of enzyme induction. Thus, data indicate that H2O2 plays a major role in asbestos-stimulated ODC induction and proliferation of epithelial cells of the respiratory tract by altering the regulation of a gene critical to proliferation. Another interesting study is called, "SV40 Enhances the Risk of Malignant Mesothelioma among People Exposed to Asbestos: A Molecular Epidemiologic Case-Control Study by Alfonso Cristaudo, Rudy Fddis, Agnese Vivaldi, Rodolfo Buselli, Vittorio Gattini, Giovanni Guglielmi, Francesca Cosentino, Franco Ottenga, Eugenio Ciancia, Roberta Libener, Rosangela Filiberti, Monica Neri, PierGia.o Betta, Mauro Tognon, Luciano Mutti, and Riccardo Puntoni – Cancer Res April 15, 2005 65; 3049. Here is an excerpt: Abstract – We conducted a case-control study on asbestos exposure and presence of SV40 in tumor samples of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) and bladder urotheliomas (BUs). PCR analysis revealed the presence of SV40 DNA (SV40+) in eight (42.1%) MMs and 6 (33.3%) BUs. The odds ratio for MM Asb and SV40+ was 0.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.03-4.0], for Asb+ and SV40 was 3.6 (95% CI, 0.6-21.0), and for Asb+ and SV40+ was 12.6 (95% CI, 1.2-133.9). Our results suggest that SV40 increases the risk of MM among individuals exposed to asbestos. A third study is called, Response of mouse lung to crocidolite asbestos. 2. Pulmonary fibrosis after long fibres by Dr Ian Y. R. Adamson, Drummond H. Bowden – The Journal of Pathology – Volume 152 Issue 2, Pages 109 117. Here is an excerpt: Abstract – To determine the cellular and fibrogenic responses of the lung to long asbestos fibres, mice were instilled intratracheally with 0.1 mg of a sample of long crocidolite fibres. Animals were killed at intervals to 20 weeks with 3H thymidine injected one h before death. Following bronchoalveolar lavage, an increase in polymorph neutrophils (PMN) and alveolar macrophages (AM) was found during the first week, ac.panied by elevated glucosaminidase and alveolar protein levels. Although the PMN number dropped, some were always recovered by lavage to 20 weeks. Early multifocal necrosis of bronchiolar epithelium was followed by a large increase in labelling of epithelial cells and underlying fibroblasts. Epithelial overgrowth of luminal long fibres and inflammatory exudates was followed by giant cell and granuloma formation in the interstitium. After four weeks collagen levels were significantly increased and fibrosis was seen in these peribronchiolar locations. A few small fibres were observed in AM but no evidence of fibrosis was seen in alveolar walls. These findings suggest that injury to bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium allows long fibres to reach the interstitium where subsequent macrophage-fibroblast interactions result in a severe fibrotic reaction that resembles the bronchiolar .ponent of human asbestosis. We all owe a debt of gratitude to these researchers. If you found any of these excerpts interesting, please read the studies in their entirety. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: